Enrichment Week 2018 / Science

Cosmetic Chemistry

We are all really looking forward to learning about cosmetics and toiletries. We are very excited to make bath bombs and lip balms along with all of the experiments. We will learn how to describe properties of cosmetics and why/how they are used. We will also learn how to measure PH of some products and evaluate the results. We will also learn how to make the most fizz in a bath bomb and then choose what one we will use ourselves. Throughout the three days we will be creating posters to show everyone what we did and to let everyone see the outcome of our products.

We learnt about the qualities of toiletries and here’s what we learnt:

Smell- floral, citrus, spicy, sweet, fresh and delicate

Colour-Bright, strong, pale, colourless, cold and warm

Opacity- clear, milky and opaque

Texture- creamy, smooth, gentle, gel, rough, lumpy

Viscosity- thin, thick, stiff and firm

We can use these words to describe the different qualities of the products. We are not the only people who use these words to describe the products, the seller, the brand and scientist use these words to give people the perfect idea of what these products are like. We use these words on a day to day basis and this therefore can also help us find other products that may be suited to pour desires.

Our first practical was to find the PH measurements of different cosmetics, toiletries and beauty products we used nine samples from nine different cosmetic products. First we looked at the different cosmetic properties they had and recorded them. Our method was:

  • add 1ml of sample into a dimple tray
  • add 1ml of distilled water into our sample
  • Mix well
  • Add universal indicator to the mixture
  • Compare colour with PH chart
  • Record our results, writing down the product and the product type as well.

When we tested the PH of products such as dove (a soap), Alberto balsam (conditioner and the shampoo) V05 (hair gel) Veet (Hair removal cream) natural world (hair treatment) and miim (an anti persperant). Most people were very shocked about the results that we retrieved from our testing. For example the shampoo was PH1 and the conditioner was PH3 not to mention that Johnson’s baby cream was a PH3. People were very shocked at the Johnson’s baby cream because we thought it wouldn’t be that acidic as it was being applied to baby’s skin and that could harm hem really badly. We then alter discovered that a skins Phis PH5.

We used an online interactive experiment to test what ratios of bicarbonate of soda (alkali) and citric acid would make the most fizz and produce the most carbon dioxide. During the interactive we learnt that the chemical equation for the bath bomb reaction was:

Sodium bicarbonate+ citric acid -> sodium citrate + carbon dioxide + water

The experiment wanted us to measure out different amounts of sodium bicarbonate to citric acid in ratios of 2:1, 1:1, 1:2, 4:1 and 1:4. It showed us the different levels of CO2after it was put in water and also the PH.

We found out that the reaction with an equal amount of sodium bicarbonate to citric acid produced the most fizz where as the one with 4 times the amount of CO2.

I think this interactive was a good guideline or the actual experiment. It was also different to see, how much thought was put into getting the most out of a bath bomb.

We did a test/ experiment in Pairs to find out which ratios sodium bicarbonate and citric acid to see which will be the most fizzy in our bath bombs. In this experiment we first of all timed how long it took for the 50:50 ratio to produce 100ml of carbon dioxide. Once we had this time we could use it to see how much would be produced for the others. We took the time from the first test and stopped the others moving at this time to se how much was produced and then we compared the results and chose which one we were going to use. We also testes the PH of the mixture.

When there is the same amount of citric acid and sodium carbonate there is more carbon dioxide produced. If you wanted a more acidic bath bomb, you would have to add more citric acid.

We went with the B (which had the most carbon dioxide) to find out how long it took to get 100cm3. We then used this time to see ho0w much carbon dioxide would be produced in that time but with other ratios so we could really find the best formula to use.

We all made bath bombs which smelt like either lavender or rose. The Bath bombs had either lavender or rose petals in them to give them, extra smell along with a bit of texture. We firstly had to measure the bicarbonate of soda and the citric acid carefully. We then added either pink or purple coloured powder to give our bath bombs pretty pastel colours. We mixed it thoroughly. After that we poured 6ml of lavender or rose essential oils to our mixture to give it a really nice scent. We mixed really well continuously whilst adding a spray of water at the time to bring the mixture together. It shouldn’t be together in the bowl but if you squeezed a bit it should hold. If you added too much water the reaction started and so the product started fizzing. Once the mixture had come together you had to start putting the mixture into the moulds of our choice and then we would let them set for 20-30 minutes in the mould before we popped them out and let them dry. Whilst we were applying the mixture to the mould we had to make sure that the mixture was compressed thoroughly and really well to make sure that we could fit the most amount of product in one mould.

We made lip balms by first getting a small beaker and adding 10g of white beeswax drops into the beaker we then put the beaker into the hot water bath and waited till they had melted. The water bath was at 70 degrees Celsius. After about 7, minutes we took out beeswax out of the hot water bath and then we all used a glass rod to start mixing the beeswax together making sure that all was melted. Once we had all done a bit of mixing, we added the 13g   of shea butter and 20g of our avocado oil. Again we let it melt in the hot water bath before we did some more mixing to make sure that the mixture was nice and smooth and not lumpy. After we had done a lot of mixing, we poured it into our little containers and if we had some left we poured it into little weighing boats and we let them sit.

After we had completed all of this we put our bath bombs and our lip balms in little treat bags and decorated each one with ribbon.

These past three days have been great fun making bath bombs and lip balms as well as completing all of the experiments and finding out things we wouldn’t have thought of;.